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Battle of Ulsan

 It is a naval battle off Ulsan in the southern part of Korean Peninsula on August 14, 1904 (37th year of Meiji). Japanese 2nd Fleet defeated Russian Vladivostok Squadron that was threatening the trade route between Japan and Korean Peninsula.

Otsu Incident

 Russian Crown Prince Nikolai visiting Japan was injured by Tsuda Sanzo, policeman on guard duty on May 11, 1891 (24th year of Meiji). The incident is called as Otsu Incident after the name of the city in Shiga Prefecture where the accident occurred.

Katsura - Taft Agreement

 On July 29, 1905 (38th year of Meiji), the negotiation was conducted on the interest in Korea and the Philippines between Prime Minister Katsura Taro and W. H. Taft, Secretary of War of the United States of America who was visiting Japan. This is called "Katsura-Taft Memorandum" or "Katsura-Taft Agreement."

Jiandao (Kando) Agreement

 It is an agreement concluded between Japan and Qing on September 4, 1909 (42nd year of Meiji). At first, the problem of Jiandao district (currently Korean autonomous prefecture in Yanbian and Korean autonomous county in Changbai) was a territorial dispute between Korea and Qing, but it became a diplomatic problem between Japan and Qing as a result of the second Korea-Japan Agreement (the Treaty of 1905). The Jiandao Agreement was concluded to solve the problem by transferring the Jiandao district to Qing in exchange for Japanese acquisition of the rights to construct railways in China.


 "Kenkenroku" is a book written by Mutsu Munemitsu, foreign minister in Meiji era. The content covers the stories behind the scenes of diplomacy of Japan Empire, especially a summary of the facts in 1894 (27th year of Meiji) to 1895 (28th Year of Meiji) concerning the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 and the Tripartite Intervention.

Battle of Yellow Sea

 On August 10, 1904 (37th year of Meiji), Russian Port Arthur Squadron fought against Japanese Combined Fleet outside Lushun. This was the first naval battle of battleships in the 20th century.

Kabo Nongmin cheongjaeng
  (Tonghak peasant's war)

 It is also called Rebellion of Tonghak Party. It is a war raised by armed peasants, mainly Tonghak Party in Korea on February 15, 1894 (27th year of Meiji). They broke up once but ruse up again in May in great reaction against oppressive measures taken by the Korean government and occupied the whole of Chonju Prefecture in June which is one of the central parts of Cholla-do. However, they were defeated by the Japanese army dispatched to the Korean Peninsula, and fighting came to an end virtually on December 28.

Komura - Weber Memorandum

 In Korea, after occurrences of the assassination of Queen Min, confinement (move) of Korean King Kojong at Russian Legation and other incidents, pro-Japanese leaders were assassinated or arrested and a pro-Russian government was formed. Consequently, Komura-Weber memorandum was exchanged between Komura Jutaro, Minister to Korea and Karl Ivanovich Weber, Russian Minister to Korea to improve the worsening Russo-Japanese relations. It included an agreement between Japan and Russia to advise the Korean government to return the king to the palace.

Triple Intervention

 Japan took over Liaodong Peninsula from Qing as a result of Shimonoseki Treaty. Russia, France and Germany raised an objection to it and demanded Japan to return the peninsula to Qing. This is called "the Triple Intervention".

Simonoseki Peace Conference

 It is a peace conference on the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 held at Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture from March 20 to April 17, 1895 (28th year of Meiji)


 Qing is the Dynasty that was established by Aixin-Jueluo in 1636. The dynasty took over China from Ming Dynasty and was ruined in 1912 (1st year of Taisho) as a result of the 1911 Revolution.

Second Anglo-Japanese Alliance

 It is an agreement concluded on August 12, 1905 (38th year of Meiji). It included equal opportunities of Japan and Britain in Qing and recognition by Britain of Japan’s protectorate rights in Korea.

Republic of China

 The Revolution of 1911 broke out in 1911 (44th year of Meiji) and the Republic of China was established next year. Sun Wen was appointed the First Provisional President of the Republic of China.

Bloody Sunday

 It is the military suppression on workers in petition demonstration held in St. Petersburg, the capital of Russia on January 22, 1905 (38th year of Meiji). As a consequence of this incident, anti-government movements broke out in a nationwide scale, which was later called the Russian Revolution of 1905, and it became difficult for Russia to continue the war.

Tonghak Society

 It is a typical newly-risen religion at the end of the Korean Dynasty. Its doctrinal content denying the conventional Confucian morals gained the sympathy of general public and spread rapidly to the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. It became the nucleus of Tonghak peasants war.

Nishi - Rosen Agreement

 It is an agreement on control of Korea between Japan and Russia that was signed by Nishi Tokujiro, Foreign Minister of the 3rd Ito Hirobumi Cabinet and Roman R. Rosen, Russian Minister to Japan on April 25, 1898 (31st year of Meiji).

Anglo - Japanese Alliance

 It is an alliance treaty concluded on January 30, 1902 (35th year of Meiji) between Japan and Britain that had common interests in China and Korea. It stipulates that if either of the parties enters into a war with any one country, the other party shall remain neutral and that if either of the parties enters into a war with two or more countries, both the arties shall fight jointly. Based on this treaty, Britain kept a neutral position during the Russo-Japanese War.

Russo - Japanese Agreement

 It is an agreement that defined the boundary of mutual interests and cooperation between Japan and Russia in line with the rapidly changing international situations after the Russo-Japanese War. The agreement was concluded four times between 1907 (40th year of Meiji) and 1916 (5th year of Taisho).

Portsmouth Peace Conference

 Japan and Russia conducted negotiations to end the war in Portsmouth, naval port in New Hampshire, United States of America from August 10 to September 5, 1905 (38th year of Meiji). It is also called Portsmouth Peace Conference. Japan and Russia signed the peace treaty to end the war through the mediation of Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States of America.

Russo - Japanese Peace Treaty

 It is a peace treaty concluded between Japan and Russia at the Russo-Japanese Peace Conference (Portsmouth Peace Conference) on September 5, 1905 (38th year of Meiji). The Russo-Japanese War was terminated by this treaty and Japanese interests in Korea were recognized and the interests in Southern Manchuria owned by Russia up to the time were transferred to Japan.

Korea - Japan Protocol

 This is a protocol that defined the unlimitation of Japanese military activities in Taehan Empire (the Korean Empire). Japan and Korea signed the protocol on February 23, 1904 (37th year of Meiji).

Sino - Japanese Peace Treaty

 It is a peace treaty signed by Japanese plenipotentiaries Ito Hirobumi and Mutsu Munemitsu and Qing plenipotentiaries Li Hongzhang and Li Jing Fang on April 17, 1895 (28th year of Meiji). This treaty defined annulment of Qing’s suzerainty in Korea, cession of Liaodong Peninsula, Pescadores and Taiwan, payment of reparations, etc. but it caused the Triple Intervention.

Sino - Japanese War of 1894-1895

 t is a war between Japan and Qing in 1894 (27th year of Meiji) to 1895 (28th Year of Meiji) for control of the Korean Peninsula.

Battle of Tsushima

 On May 27, 1905 (38th year of Meiji), the Japanese Combined Fleet and the Russian Baltic Fleet fought a naval battle off Tsushima. The Japanese fleet defeated the Russian fleet in this battle.

Hibiya Riots

 Citizens in objection to the Russo-Japanese Peace Treaty stipulating the non-reparation arrangement from Russia raised a riot at various places in Tokyo centering on Hibiya Park on September 5 to September 7, 1905 (38th year of Meiji).

Battle of Fengtian (Mukden)

 It is a battle around Fengtian (Mukden, current Shenyang) in February to March 1905 (38th year of Meiji). The Japanese army in Manchuria defeated the Russian Far East Army stationed in Fengtian and occupied Fengtian.

Boxer Uprising

 It is also called Yihetuan Uprising (Boxer uprising). It is an exclusionism movement (anti-foreign thought and movement) that took place in China in 1900 (33rd year of Meiji), and the group named Yihetuan played an active part. Japan and other foreign countries dispatched military forces to suppress the uprising by force.

Assassination of Queen Min Korea

 Taking advantage of the triple Intervention, the pro-Russian Min government was formed in Korea, which adopted anti-Japanese policies. It is an incident that Miura Goro, Japanese Minister to Korea, caused Japanese soldiers and adventurers to intrude into Gyeongbokgung Palace and assassinated Queen Min, wife of Korean King, Kojong on October 8, 1895 (28th year of Meiji). At the same time, Japan made the father of the king, Tae-won-gun form the pro-Japanese government.

Yamagata - Lobanov Agreement

 It is an agreement signed by Yamagata Aritomo and Lobanov, Russian foreign Minister to define the balance of power in the Korean Peninsula between Japan and Russia on June 9, 1896 (29th year of Meiji). It is an agreement concluded on the basis of Komura-Weber Agreement that had been locally arranged.

Ballte of Liaoyang

 It is a battle around Liaoyang in August to September 1904 (37th year of Meiji). The Japanese army defeated the Russian army and occupied Liaoyang.

Blockade of the mouth of Port Arthur

 In February to April, 1904 (37th year of Meiji), the Japanese navy undertook operations to sink ships at the entrance of Lushun (Port Arthur) and block the Russian fleet from leaving the port. The operations were conducted three times and ended in failure at considerable casualties including Hirose Takeo.

Sino - Russian Secret Treaty of 1896

 It is also called Russo-Qing Secret Agreement. It is a secret agreement signed by Li Hongzhang, Russian Foreign Minister Lobanov and Russian Finance Minister Witte in Moscow on June 3, 1896 (29th year of Meiji). The treaty included an agreement of mutual assistance in case Japan invaded the Far East Territory of Russia, Qing or Korea, and Qing’s approval for Russia to construct railways up to Vladivostok via Jilin and Heilong Jiang Provinces.