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 Only 12 years after the International Red Cross Society was established in 1864 (1st year of Genji), was formed an non-government organization named “Hakuai-Kai (the Philanthropic Society)” in 1877 (10th year of Meiji) intended for the relief and protection of the sick and wounded, and the organization played the important role in the Satsuma Rebellion. And then, “Hakuai-Kai” was renamed as “Japan Red Cross Society” and continued the activities in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War.
 Furthermore, foreign doctors voluntarily visited Japan to nurse the wounded soldiers. In addition, foreign Red Cross societies carried out humanitarian aids.
 In this connection, the Center for Asian Historical Records stores the following materials relating to the Red Cross Society.


1. Original script signed by the Emperor in 1906: Treaty of November 15: Red Cross treaty concluded among 11 countries including Switzerland
2. Original script signed by the Emperor in 1901: Imperial ordinance No. 223: Japan Red Cross Society Regulations
3. Notifying the use of a hospital ship by Japan Red Cross Society
4. Members of a volunteer nurse woman association giving assistance of nursing service to Navy
5. Concerning work of American Mrs. Muggy's party at Hiroshima Provisional Hospital
6. Dispatch of Inspector from U.S. Consul in Yingkou to Manchuria


Please click the following image to see materials relating to the Russo-Japanese War and the Red Cross Society.




  Source: National Archives of Japan (NAJ)  

Title: Original script signed by the Emperor in 1906: Treaty of November 15: Red Cross treaty concluded among 11 countries including Switzerland

Reference code: A03020009300

 It was in 1886 (19th year of Meiji) that Japan entered into the Red Cross Treaty (concluded in 1864). The Red Cross Treaty obligates a participant country to protect wounds and hospitals in war and a medical institution to wear the flag and the armband the red cross mark in white.



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  Source: National Archives of Japan (NAJ)  

Title: Original script signed by the Emperor in 1901: Imperial Ordinance No. 223: Japan Red Cross Society Regulations

Reference code: A03020512600

 This material is an official document of regulations stipulating the work of Japan Red Cross Society. The regulations define the provisions that the president and vice president of the Red Cross Society shall be given the Imperial sanction and that the staff of the Red Cross “assisting in wartime nursing work” of the Japanese army shall be given treatment equivalent to non-commissioned officers or privates.



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  Source: National Institute for Defense Studies,
Ministry of Defense  

Title: Notifying the use of a hospital ship by Japan Red Cross Society

Reference code: C03025459500

 The Japan Red Cross Society gave medical treatment to the wounded by using two hospital ships named “Hakuai-Maru” and “Kousai-Maru” in the Russo-Japanese War. The material states that the Ministry of Army of Japan gave a notice to the Russian government to the effect that the two ships are hospital ships applicable to the “GENEVA Treaty”.



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  Source: National Institute for Defense Studies,
Ministry of Defense  

Title: Members of a volunteer nurse woman association giving assistance of nursing service to Navy

Reference code: C03025440400

 This material is a response letter from army and navy to an application by a female nurse of Japan Red Cross Society for nursing the wounded. There were restrictions to social activities of women in those days, but there were exceptions like “Voluntary nurse women association” (organization of volunteer female nurses) as shown in the material.



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  Source: National Institute for Defense Studies,
Ministry of Defense  

Title: Concerning work of American Mrs. Muggy's party at Hiroshima Provisional Hospital

Reference code: C03025616100

 As the Russo-Japanese War broke out, many foreign people visited Japan to work for medical care activities. This material is an official document notifying that American woman doctor Mrs. MacGee and female nurses work at a hospital in Hiroshima. After the war was over, the Japanese government sent a letter of appreciation to Mrs. MacGee. (Title: Address of thanks to the Mrs. Muggy's party: Reference code: C03027616700)



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  Source: National Institute for Defense Studies,
Ministry of Defense  

Title: Dispatch of Inspector from U.S. Consul in Yingkou to Manchuria

Reference code: C03025949000

 This material is a letter from H.B. Miller, U.S. Consul in Yingkou applying for dispatching his men for surveying the situations of Chinese refugees in Manchuria. Consul Miller had a concurrent office as the president of the Red Cross Society in Niuzhung and was interested in relief of refugees.



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